九年级英语(人教版)全册知识点汇总,预习必备!

发布时间:2018-07-11 12:26

今天,王老师给初三和准初三的同学总结了九年级全册必考知识点(新人教版),包括重点短语、句型及其用法、语法,这些知识点即重点又全面,绝对是期末复习的独家一手好资料哦,好好利用起来吧!



Unit1 How can we become good learners?


【重点短语】

1. have conversation with sb.  同某人谈话

2. too…to…  太……而不能

3. the secret to…  ……的秘诀

4. be afraid of doing sth./ be afraid to do sth.  害怕做某事

5. look up  查阅

6. repeat out loud  大声跟读

7. make mistakes in  在……方面犯错误

8. connect ……with…   把……和……连接/联系起来

9. get bored  感到厌烦

10. be stressed out  焦虑不安的

11. pay attention to  注意;关注

12. depend on  取决于;依靠

13. the ability to do sth..  做某事的能力


【考点详解】

1. by + doing 通过……方式(by是介词,后面要跟动名词,也就是动词的ing形式)

2. talk about 谈论,议论,讨论

The students often talk about movie after class. 学生们常常在课后讨论电影。

talk to sb= talk with sb 与某人说话

3. 提建议的句子:

①What/ how about +doing sth.?  做…怎么样?(about后面要用动词的ing形式,这一点考试考的比较多)

如:What/ How about going shopping?

②Why don't you + do sth.?   你为什么不做…?

如:Why don't you go shopping?

③Why not + do sth. ?   为什么不做…?

如:Why not go shopping?

④Let's + do sth. 让我们做…...吧。

如: Let's go shopping

⑤Shall we/I + do sth.?  我们/我...…好吗?

如:Shall we/I go shopping?

4. a lot 许多,常用于句末。

如:I eat a lot.  我吃了许多。

5. too…to... 太…...而不能

 常用的句型:too+形容词/副词+ to do sth.

如:I'm too tired to say anything. 我太累了,什么都不想说。

6. aloud, loud与loudly的用法,三个词都与“大声”或“响亮”有关。

①aloud是副词,通常放在动词之后。

②loud可作形容词或副词。用作副词时,常与speak, talk, laugh等动词连用,多用于比较级,须放在动词之后。

如:She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。

③loudly是副词,与loud同义,有时两者可替换使用,可位于动词之前或之后。

如:He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public. 他不当众大声谈笑。

7. not…at all 一点也不,根本不

如:I like milk very much, but I don't like coffee at all. 我非常喜欢牛奶,但是我一点也不喜欢咖啡。

not经常可以和助动词结合在一起,at all 则放在句尾。

8. be/get excited about sth.  对…...感到兴奋

9. ① end up doing sth 终止做某事,结束做某事

如:The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。

② end up with sth. 以…结束(注意介词with)

如: The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。

10. first of all 首先(这个短语可用在作文中,使得文章有层次)

11.  also 也、而且(用于肯定句)常在句子的中间

either 也(用于否定句)常在句末

too  也 (用于肯定句)常在句末  (它们三个的区分要清楚,尤其要知道用在什么句子中以及各自的位置)

12. make mistakes 犯错     

如:I often make mistakes. 我经常犯错。

make a mistake 犯一个错误    

如:I have made a mistake. 我已经犯了一个错误。

13. laugh at sb.  笑话;取笑(某人)(常见短语)

如:Don't laugh at me!  不要取笑我!

14. take notes 做笔记,做记录

15. enjoy doing sth . 喜欢做…,乐意做…(这是一个非常重要的考点)    

如:She enjoys playing football. 她喜欢踢足球。

enjoy oneself  过得愉快    

如:He enjoyed himself. 他过得愉快。

16. native speaker 说本族语的人

17. make up 组成、构成

18. one of +(the+ 形容词最高级)+名词复数形式 : …其中之一(这一题主要考两点,一是最高级,一是名词复数,大家做题的时候要小心)

如: She is one of the most popular teachers. 她是最受欢迎的教师之一。

19. It's +形容词+(for sb. ) to do sth (对于某人来说)做某事…

如:It's difficult (for me ) to study English. 对于我来说学习英语太难了。

句中的it 是形式主语,真正的主语是to study English。

20. practice doing 练习做某事 (practice后面接动名词,这一点有可能考到)

如:She often practice speaking English. 她经常练习说英语。

21. decide to do sth. 决定做某事(重要考点,大家需要记住decide后面跟的是不定式,也就是to do)  

如:LiLei has decided to go to BeiJing . 李雷已经决定去北京。

22. unless 如果不,除非,引导条件状语从句

如:You will fail unless you work hard. 假如你不努力你就会失败。

23. deal with 处理    如:I dealt with a lot of problem.

24. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/某事

如:Mother worried about his son just now. 妈妈刚才担心他的儿子。

25. be angry with sb. 对某人生气

26. perhaps = maybe 也许

27. go by (时间) 过去 .   如:Two years went by. 两年过去了。

28.  see sb / sth doing 看见某人正在做某事(如果是看到正在做什么,要用动词ing形式,考的较多的也是动词ing形式)

如: She saw him drawing a picture in the classroom. 她看见他正在教室里画画。

29. each other 彼此

30. regard… as … ;把…...看作为...…      

如:The boys regarded Anna as a fool. 这些男孩把安娜看成傻瓜。

31. too many 许多,修饰可数名词   如:too many girls

too much 许多,修饰不可数名词   如:too much milk(要区分too many 和 too much只要记住它们修饰什么词就可以了)

much too 太,修饰形容词    如:much too beautiful(too much和much too意思不同,大家不要混淆它们的意思,这种单词容易出解析题)

32.change…into…  将…变为…

33. with the help of sb. = with one's help  在某人的帮助下(注意介词of和with,容易出题)

如:with the help of LiLei = with LiLei's help 在李雷的帮助下

34. compare…to… 把…比作...(另外,大家要注意另一个短语,compare...with...,这也是一个重要的短语,意思是:拿…和…比较)

35. instead 代替 用在句末,副词

instead of sth/doing sth 代替,而不是 (这个地方考的较多的就是instead of doing sth,也是就说如果of后面跟动词,要用动名词形式,也就是动词的ing形式)

如:I will go instead of you. 我将代替你去。


Unit2 I think that moon cakes are delicious!


【短语归纳】

1. the Lantern Festival 元宵节              

2. the Dragon Boat Festival 端午节

3. the Water Festival 泼水节

4. be fun to watch 看着很有意思

5. eat five meals a day 一天吃五餐

6. put on five pounds 体重增加了五磅

7. in two weeks 两星期之后

8. be similar to... 与.......相似

17. end up最终成为;最后处于

18. share sth. with sb. 与……分享……  

19. as a result 结果

20. dress up 乔装打扮

21. haunted house 鬼屋

22. call out  大声呼喊                 

23. remind sb. of  使某人想起

24. sound like  听起来像  

25. treat sb. with. 用/以……对待某人

26. the beginning of new life 新生命的开始


【考点详解】

1. What + a(n) + 形容词 + 可数名词的单数形式+主语+谓语+其他)!  多么……的……!

2. How + 形容词/副词(+主语+谓语+其他)! ……多么……!

3. be going to 将要/打算……

4. in + 时间段 在……后

5. give sb. sth.=give sth. to sb. 给某人某物;把某物给某人

6. plan to do sth.  计划做某事

7. refuse to do sth.  拒绝做某事

8. one of + 名词复数形式  ……之一


【重点语法】

一. 宾语从句


宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。三大考点:引导词、时态和语序。其中,语序必须是陈述句语序。

1. 常由下面的一些词引导:

①由that 引导,表示陈述意义,that可省略

He says (that) he is at home. 他说他在家里。

②由if , whether引导,表示一般疑问意义(带有是否、已否、对否等)

I don’t know if / whether Wei Hua likes fish. 我不知道韦华是否喜欢鱼。

③由连接代词、连接副词(疑问词) 引导,表示特殊疑问意义

Do you know what he wants to buy?  你知道他想要买什么吗?

2. 从句时态要与主句一致

当主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何时态

当主句是一般过去时,从句应使用过去某时态(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时)

He said (that) he was at home. 他说他在家里。

I didn’t know that she was singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。

She wanted to know if I had finished m homework. 她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。

Did you know when he would be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来?


二. 感叹句


感叹句是表达喜、怒、哀、乐以及惊奇、惊讶等强烈感情的句子。

感叹句通常由 what 或 how 引导。现分述如下:

1. 由 what 引导的感叹句,其句子结构可分为以下三种:

①可用句型:“ What + a/an +形容词+可数名词单数+主语+谓语+ 其他!”。如:

What a nice present it is! 它是一件多么好的礼物啊!  

②可用句型:“ What +形容词+可数名词复数+主语+谓语+ 其他!”。如:

What beautiful flowers they are! 多么漂亮的花啊!

③可用句型:“ What +形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语+ 其他!”。如:

What fine weather it is today! 今天天气多好啊!

2. 由 how 引导的感叹句,其句子结构也分为三种:

①可用句型:“ How +形容词 / 副词+主语+谓语+ 其他!”。如:

How careful she is! 她多么细心啊!         

How fast he runs! 他跑得多快啊!

②可用句型:“ How +形容词+ a/an +可数名词单数+主语+谓语!”。如:

How beautiful a girl she is! 她是个多么漂亮的姑娘啊!

③可用句型:“ How+主语+谓语!”。如:

How time flies! 光阴似箭!

3. 由 what 引导的感叹句与由 how 引导的感叹句有时可以转换,但句中部分单词的顺序要有所变化。如:

How beautiful a girl she is! = What a beautiful girl she is!

What delicious cakes these are! = How delicious these cakes are!


Unit3 Could you please tell me where the restrooms are?


【重要短语】

1. used to do sth. 过去常常做某事                   

2. be afraid of 害怕

3. from time to time 时常;有时

4. turn red 变红

5. take up 开始做,从事,占据(时间、空间)

6. deal with 对付;应付

7. not…any more 不再

8. tons of attention 很多关注

9. worry about 担心

10. be careful 当心

11. hang out 闲逛

12. give up 放弃

13. thank about 考虑

14. a very small number of… 极少数的……

15. be alone 独处

16. give a speech 做演讲


【考点详解】

1. ①问路常用的句子:

Do you know where is … ?

Can you tell me how can I get to …?

Could you tell me how to get to …?

②Can/Could/Will/Would you please tell me sth.  表示十分客气地询问事情

③Could you tell me how to get to the park?  请你告诉我怎么才能去邮局好吗?

上面句子中的how to get to the park是疑问词与动词不定式连用,用作宾语,但不是宾语从句(这一点要搞清楚,它不是宾语从句),相当于how I can get to the park(宾语从句)

I don't know how to solve the problem=I don't know how I can solve the problem.  我不知道如何解决这个问题

Can you tell me when to leave? =Can you tell me when I will leave?   你能告诉我什么时候离开?

2. 日常交际用语:

take the elevator / escalator to the … floor 乘电梯/自动扶梯到…楼

turn left / right == take a left / right  向左/ 右转

go straight  向前直走(straight这个词经常考)

3. next to 旁边、紧接着(常见短语)

Lily is next to Ann.  莉莉就在安的旁边。

4. between…and… 在…和…之间

Lily is between Ann and Tom. 莉莉就在安和汤姆的之间。

5. Is that a good place to hang out?  那是不是一个闲荡的好地方?

上面句子中的to hang out修饰前面的名词place,是不定式作定语。

6. expensive 贵的    反义词:inexpensive 不贵的

7. crowded 拥挤的  反义词:uncrowded 不拥挤的

8. take a vacation == go on a vacation 去度假

9. dress up 打扮     dress up as 打扮成

He wanted to dress up as Father Christmas. 他想要打扮成圣诞老人。

10. on the beach  在海滩上,介词用 on

11. depend on  根据、依靠、依赖、取决于

Living things depend on the sunlight. 生物对阳光有依赖性。

That depends on how you did it. 那取决于你怎样做这件事。

12. prefer 动词,更喜欢、宁愿,常用的结构有:

prefer sth. 更喜欢某事  

I prefer English. 我更喜欢英语。

prefer doing/to do 宁愿做某事

I prefer sitting/ to sit.我宁愿坐着。

prefer sth to sth. 同…相比更喜欢…  

I prefer dogs to cats. 与猫相比我更喜欢狗。

prefer doing sth to doing sth 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事

I prefer walking to sitting. 我宁愿走路也不愿坐着。

prefer to do sth rather than do sth 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事

I prefer to work rather than be free. 我宁愿工作而不愿闲着。

(我再次强调一下,prefer的用法真的很重要,这不是开玩笑~)

13. on the other hand  另一方面(一方面:on one hand. 对于这样的短语大家完全可以放在作文中,这样可以使文章增色不少)

14. 把…借给某人:lend sb. sth. =  lend sth to sb.(反义词:borrow..from..)

Lily lent me her book = Lily lent her book to me . 莉莉把她的书借给了我。

15. I'm sorry to do sth. 对做某事我觉得很抱歉、伤心。

16. in a way 在某种程度说

17. in order to do srh  为了…, 表目的。

He got up early in order to catch the first bus. 他起早床,是为了赶上头班公共汽车。

18. 同级比较:as…as...

as + 形容词/副词原级 + as , 表示“和…一样的…”

He works as hard as we. 他工作和我们同样努力。


【重点语法】宾语从句(见Unit2重点语法部分)


Unit4 I used to be afraid of the dark.


【重点短语】

1. be more interested in  对…更感兴趣  

2. on the swim team  游泳队的队员

3. be terrified of 害怕

4. gym class 体操课

5. worry about 担心

6. all the time 一直,总是

7. chat with  与…闲聊

8. hardly ever  几乎从不

9. walk to school = go to school on foot 步行去上学

take the bus to school = go to school by bus  乘车去上学

10. as well as  不仅…而且...


【考点详解】

1. used to do sth. 过去常常做某事 (这个知识点考的很多,大家要注意这个短语的意思,还要记着used后面用的是不定式to do)

如:He used to play football after school.  

放学后他过去常常踢足球。  

2. play the piano  弹钢琴(play后面如果跟西洋乐器,大家记住,中间要加the,如果是中国乐器,不加the,如:play erhu)

3. ①be interested in sth. 对…感兴趣

②be interested in doing sth. 对做…感兴趣(对于这两个用法大家一定要掌握,切记切记)

如:He is interested in math, but he isn't interested in speaking English. 他对数学感兴趣,但是他对说英语不感兴趣。

4. interested adj. 感兴趣的,指人对某事物感兴趣,往往主语是人

interesting adj.有趣的,指某事物/某人具有趣味,主语往往是物(对于interested和interesting要区分清楚,一个主语往往是人,一个主语往往是物)

5. be terrified of sth. 害怕……  如:I am terrified of the dog.

be terrified of doing sth. 害怕做……  如:I am terrified of speaking.

6. spend  动词,表示“花费金钱、时间”(spend和pay for它们的主语都是人,这一点大家要清楚)

①spend…on sth.  在某事上花费(金钱、时间)(重要考点)

②spend…(in)doing sth.  花费(金钱、时间)去做某事 (重要考点,尤其要注意动名词,也就是动词的ing形式)        

如:He spends too much time on clothes. 他花费太多的时间在衣着上。

He spend 3 months (in) building the bridge.  他花费了三个月去建这座桥。

7. take : 动词 ,有“花费时间”的意思,常用的结构有:

It takes sb to do sth. 做某事花费某人多长时间(在这个用法中,主语经常是it,这一点要清楚,大家仔细看一下下面的例子)。    

如:It takes me a day to read the book.

8. chat with sb. 与某人闲聊       

如:I like to chat with him. 我喜欢和他聊天。

9. worry about sb./sth.  担心某人/某事 , worry 是动词

be worried about sb./sth.  担心某人/某事 , worried 是形容词

如:Don't worry about him. 不用担心他。

Mother is worried about her son. 妈妈担心他的儿子。

10. all the time 一直,始终

11. take sb. to + 地方  送/带某人去某个地方     

如:A person took him to the hospital. 一个人把他送到了医院。

12. hardly  adv. 几乎不、没有。 hardly 修饰动词时,通常放在助动词、情态动词之后,实义动词之前,

如:I can hardly understand them.  我几乎不能够明白他们。

I hardly have time to do it.  我几乎没有时间去做了。

13. in the last few years. 在过去的几年内,常与完成时连用   如:

I have lived in China in the last few years. 在过去的几年内我在中国住。

14. be different from 与...…不同(常见考点,考的最多的是它的意思,大家只需要记住它的意思,做题的时候具体问题再具体分析即可)

15. 不定式与疑问词连用:动词不定式可以和what, which, how, where, when 等引导的疑问句连用,构成不定式短语。   

如:The question is when to start.  问题是什么时候开始。

I don't know where to go.  我不知道去哪。

16. make sb./sth. + 形容词  make you happy

make sb./sth. + 动词原形 make him laugh

17. move to +地方  搬到某地 如:I moved to Beijing last year.

18. it seems that +从句 看起来好像……  (重要考点)      

如:It seems that he has changed a lot. 看起来他好像变了许多。

19.  help sb. with sth. 在某方面帮助某人(注意介词with,在某方面帮助要用这个介词)

help sb(to)do sth. 帮某人做某事(to经常省略)

She helped me with English. 她帮助我学英语。

She helped me(to)study English. 她帮助我学习英语。

20. fifteen-year-old 作形容词 ,15岁的(有一点要提醒大家,中间的year用的是单数)如:a fifteen-year-old boy 一个15岁的男孩

fifteen years old 指年龄,15岁。    

21. can't afford to do sth. 支付不起……

can't afford sth. 支付不起…

如:I can't afford to buy the car.=I can't afford the car.  我买不起这个辆小车。

22. as + 形容词/副词+ as sb+could/can  尽某人所能      

如:Zhou run as fast as her could/can. 她尽她最快的能力去跑。

23. get into trouble with  遇到麻烦

24. in the end  最后

25. make a decision :下决定,下决心

26. to one's surprise :令某人惊讶(往往出现在完型中,让我们填surprise)     

如:to their surprise 令他们惊讶      

to LiLei's surprise 令李雷惊讶

27. take pride in sth. 以…而自豪     

如:His father always take pride in him.  他的爸爸总是以他而自豪

28. pay attention to sth. 对…注意,留心      

如:You must pay attention to your friend. 你应该多注意你的朋友。

29. be able to do sth. 能够,有能力做某事      

如:She is able to do it. 她能够做到。

30. give up doing sth. 放弃做某事(注意up后面用的是动词的ing形式)    

 如:My father has given up smoking. 我爸爸已经放弃吸烟了。

31. 不再  ①no more =no longer      

如:I play tennis no more.我不再打网球。

②not …any more = not …any longer 如:

I don't play tennis any longer. 我不再打网球。


【重点语法】


反意疑问句


反义疑问句遵循这样一个原则,前肯定后否定,前否定后肯定。 

1. 肯定陈述句+否定提问  如:Lily is a student, isn't she?

2. 否定陈述句+肯定提问  如:She doesn't come from China, does she?

3. 提问部分用代词而不用名词  如:Lily is a student, isn't she?

4. 陈述句中含有否定意义的词  如:little, few, never, nothing, hardly等,其反意疑问句用肯定式(对于第四点大家不要忽视,尤其是列举的这几个词,出题的时候经常遇到,对于下面的两个例子大家要仔细看一下,要把这个知识点彻底搞懂)。   

如:He knows little English, does he?  他一点也不懂英语,不是吗?

They hardly understood it, did they?  他们几乎不明白,不是吗?

5. 反意疑问句的陈述部分含有由un-, im-, in-, dis-, 等否定意义的前缀构成的词语时,陈述部分要视为肯定含义,问句部分用否定形式。如:Your father is unhappy, isn't he?

The man is dishonest, isn't he?

It is impossible to learn English without remembering more words, isn't it?


Unit5 What are the shirts made of?


【重点短语】

1. be made of 由……制造       

2. be made in 在……制造

3. environmental protection 环境保护

4. be famous for 以……而著名

5. be produced in 在……生产

6. be known for 以……闻名

7. as far as I know 据我所知

8. pick by hand 手工采摘

9. send for 发送

10. avoid doing sth 避免做某事

11. everyday things 日用品


【考点详解】

1. made of  由……制(构)成,后接构成某物质的原料。

例:This skirt is made of silk.这件裙子是用丝绸制成的。

be made of/from/up of的区别

(1)be made of 表示制成成品后,仍可看出原材料是什么,保留原材料的质和形状,制作过程仅发生物理变化。

例:The kite is made of paper.风筝是用纸做的。

(2)be made from 表示制成的东西完全失去了原材料的外形或特征,或原材料在制作过程中发生化学变化,在成品中已无法辨认。

例:The paper is made from wood.纸是木头做的。

Butter is made from milk. 黄油是从牛奶中提炼出来的。

(3)be made up of 用……构成或组成的,指人、物皆可,指结构成分。

例:Our class is made up of six groups. 我们班是由六个小组组成的。

2. It seems that many people all over the world drink Chinese tea.

好像全世界的许多人都在喝中国茶。

句型“It seems that…”意为“看起来好像/似乎……”,其中seem是连系动词,意为“似乎;好像”,句型中的it是形式主语,不能用其他代词来替代。

例:It seems that he was late for the train. 看来他没赶上火车。

seem的几种常见结构:

(1)seem to do sth此句型可与“It seems that…”转换。

例:They seem to find the way to the cinema. =It seems that they find the way to the cinema.

他们似乎找到了去电影院的路了。

(2)seem+形容词

例:My temperature seems (to be) all right. 我的体温看上去正常了。

(3)seem+名词

例: That seems not a bad idea. 看上去主意不错。

3. When the leaves are ready, they are picked by hand and then are sent for processing in factory.

当茶叶成熟时,就被用手工采摘然后送到工厂加工。

此句是由when 引导的时间状语从句,are picked, are sent都是一般现在时的被动结构。

例:When the fruit are ready, they are picked and are sent to the market for sale.

当这些水果成熟后就被摘下来并送到市场上卖掉。

4. No matter what you may buy, you might think those products were made in those countries.

无论你买什么,你都可能认为那些产品是在那些国家生产的。

此句为由"no matter +特殊疑问词"引导让步状语从句。意为“无论….”,相当于whatever。

例:No matter what I said to her, she still didn’t believe me.

无论我对她说什么,她仍然不相信我。

5. find out, 查出,找到。

例:The police are trying to find out where the boy got off the train.

警察正在查找这个男孩是从哪下的火车。

find,find out和look for都含有“寻找、找到”的意思,但其含义和用法却不同。

① find意为“找到、发现”,通常指找到或发现具体的东西,强调的是找的结果。

Will you find mea pen? 你替我找支钢笔好吗?  

② look for意为“寻找”,是有目的地找,强调“寻找”这一动作。

例:I’m looking for my pen everywhere. 我正到处找我的钢笔。

He is looking for his shoes. 他在找他的鞋子。

③ find out意为“找出、发现、查明”,多指通过调查、寻问、打听、研究之后“搞清楚、弄明白”,通常含有“经过困难曲折”的含义,指找出较难找到的、无形的、抽象的东西。

例:Please find out when the train leaves. 请查一下火车什么时候离站。   

Read this passage,and find out the answer to this question.


【重点语法】

一般现在时的被动语态


一. 概念理解

1. 时态:在英语语言中,时态主要讨论行为动词发生的时间。

如:He often helps me with my English. 他经常帮助我学英语。(help这个动作经常发生often;故用一般现在时)

2. 语态:在英语语言中,语态主要讨论句子主语与行为动词的关系。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。

① 主语是动作的发出者(执行者)为主动语态。

如: The tall boy often hits his classmates (主语boy是谓语动词hit的发出者)。

② 主语是动作的接受者(承受者)为被动语态。汉语中常用“被”、“给”、“由”、“受”等词用来表示被动,而英语用:助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词构成

如: Chinese is spoken by the most people in the world(主语Chinese是谓语动词speak的承受者)。

3. 语态与时态的关系:在任何一个英语句子中都同时存在语态和时态,他们是分析一个英语句子的两个主要元素。

如:① He is looking after his sister at home. (此句为现在进行时的主动语态结构)

② He is being looked after well by his parents. (此句为现在进行时的被动语态结构)


二. 被动语态最基本的句型结构: be +及物动词过去分词

说明:① be 有时态,人称和数的变化。

② 被动语态中的谓语动词必须是及物动词;因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh at等,也可用于被动语态。


三. 被动语态的使用

1. 当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被动语态,这时往往不用by 短语。     

Mr. White, the cup with mixture was broken after class. (只是告诉老师杯子坏了,不知是谁弄坏的,或不想说出谁弄坏的)。

2. 突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by 短语。

如:The cup was broken by Paul.


四. 主动语态变被动语态的变法: 主动语态与被动语态之间如何转换


1. 把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。

2. 把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的be + 过去分词,时态要与原句保持一致。

3. 把主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,放在被动语态里谓语动词之后,by 短语可以省略。如果原句主语是地点名词,在被动语态中用in + 地点名词作状语。


五. 一般现在时的被动语态:am /is/ are +done

如:Tea is grown in Hangzhou. 杭州种植茶叶。


Unit6 When was it invented?

                            

【重点短语】

1. by accident  偶然地;意外地

2. without doubt  毫无疑问的;的确

3. by mistake  错误地

4. look up to  钦佩;仰慕

5. take place  发生;出现

6. all of a sudden  突然;猛地

7. divide…into…  把……分成......

8. the Olympics  奥林匹克运动会

9. the style of  ……的样式

10. be used for  被用于……


【考点详解】

1. invent  v. 发明        

inventor  n. 发明家       

invention  n. 发明

2. be used for doing 用来做…(是被动语态)(这个短语的考点有两点,一是used for的意思,二是for后面用动名词)

Pens are used for writing. 笔是用来写的。

3. 给某人某样东西  give sth. to sb.     

I gave a pen to him. 我给他一支笔。    

give sb. sth.

I gave him a pen. 我给他一支笔。

4. all day 整天

5. salty  adj. 咸的  salt  n. 盐

6. by mistake 错误地(犯错:make mistake,这些常见的短语大家务必要掌握)

I took the umbrella by mistake. 我不小心拿错了雨伞。

8. by accident 意外,偶然(常见短语,考的最多的是它的意思)

I met her by accident at bus stop. 我在公共汽车站意外地见到了她。

9. not…until… 直到…才…(重中之重,这个用法非常重要!)

I didn't go to bed until I finished my work. 我直到完成我的工作才去睡觉。

10. according to +名词,根据…   

according to this article 根据这篇文章    

11. over an open fire 野饮

12. leaf  n. 叶子   复数形式 leaves

13. nearby adj. 附近的

14. fall into 落入,掉进  

The leaf fell into the river. 叶子落入了河里。

fall down 摔倒        

She fell down from her bike. 她从她自行车摔倒了。

15. quite 非常 adv.  与冠词a连用时,冠词a必须放在它的后面

quite a beautiful girl 一个漂亮的女孩

17. pleased adj. 表示外部因素引起人发自内心的欣慰和愉快

pleasant adj. 愉快,高兴。指天气、时间、旅行令人高兴愉快

please v. 使高兴

18. battery-operated  adj. 电池控制的,是名词+动词的运动分词构成的合成形容词

19. in the sixth century 在第6世纪

20. travel around 周游

21. more than == over 超过(相比较,more than更重要)

more than 300 == over 300  超过300

22. including 包括,可以与名词和动名词连用

Six people, including a baby, were hurt. 6个人包括一个小孩受伤了。

23. have been played 被上演 ,是现在完成时的被动语态,现在完成时的被动语态的结构:have/has been +过去分词。

4. be born 出生 (常见短语)    

He was born in Canada. 他在加拿大出生。

25. safety n. 安全  safe adj. 安全的

26. knock into 撞上(某人)

27. divide sth. into…,将…划分成...,通常指将一个整体分成几个对应相对的部分

Let's divide ourselves into 4 groups. 让我们把我们自己划成4组。

28. since then 从那以后,常与完成时态连用


【重点语法】

一般过去时的被动语态


1. 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词所表示的动作承受者。

2. 被动语态基本结构:be+及物动词的过去分词

被动语态中的be 是助动词,有人称、数和时态的变化。

一般现在时的被动语态为:am/is/are+过去分词

一般过去时的被动语态为:was/were+ 过去分词

A lot of trees were planted here last year.

与情态动词连用的被动语态:情态动词+ be + 过去分词(关于被动语态,大家一定要熟悉,这个在中考的时候属于是必考内容,而且是重点内容)

关于被动语态更多内容,详见Unit5重点语法部分。


Unit7 Teenagers should be allowed to choose their own clothes.


【重点短语】

1. be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事

allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事

allow doing sth. 允许做某事

2. sixteen-year-olds = sixteen-year-old boys and girls 16岁的孩子

3. part-time jobs 兼职工作

4. a driver’s license 驾照

5. on weekends 在周末

6. at that age 在那个年龄段

7. on school nights 在上学期间的晚上

8. stay up 熬夜

9. clean up  清扫

10. fail(in)a test 考试不及格

11. take the test 参加考试

12. the other day 前几天

13. all my classmates 我所有的同学

14. concentrate on 全神贯注于

15. be good for 对…...有益

16. in groups 成群的,按组

17. get noisy 变得吵闹(系表结构)

18. learn from 向......学习

19. at present 目前,现在

20. have an opportunity to do sth. 有做……的机会


【重点句型】

1. I don’t think twelve-year-olds should be allowed to get their ears pierced. 我认为不应该允许12岁的孩子穿耳孔。

2. They talk instead of doing homework. 他们聊天而不是做作业。

3. He is allowed to stay up until 11:00 pm. 允许他们熬到晚上11点。

4. We should be allowed to take time to do things like that more often. 我们应该被允许更加经常的花些时间多做这类事情。

5. What school rules do you think should be changed? 你认为学校的哪些制度应该改一改了?

6. The two pairs of jeans both look good on me. 这两条牛仔裤穿在我身上都适合。

7. The classroom is a real mess. 教室太脏了。

8. Should I be allowed to make my own decisions? 我应该被允许自己做决定吗?

9. Only then will I have a chance of achieving my dream. 只有这样我才能实现我的梦想。

10. They should be allowed to practice their hobbies as much a s they want.  应该允许他们对业余爱好想练多长时间就练多长时间。

11. We have nothing against running. 我们没有理由反对他跑步。


【考点详解】

1. enough  adv. 足够地  adj. 足够的

形容词+enough 如:beautiful enough 足够漂亮

enough+名词 如:enough food 足够食物

2. stop doing sth. 停止正在做的事       

Please stop speaking. 请停止说话。

stop to do sth. 停止一件事去做另一件事      

Please stop to speak. 请停下来说话。

3. it seems + that从句 看起来好像……

It seems that he feels very sad. 他看起来好像很伤心。

4. yet 仍然,还 (常用在否定句或疑问句当中

5. stay up 熬夜     

如:I often stay up until 12:00pm. 我经常熬夜到12点。

6. 程度副词:always总是  usually经常  sometimes有时 never 从不

7. go shopping(去购物), go fishing(去钓鱼), go swimming(去游泳), go boating(去划船), go hiking(去远足)

8. be strict with sb. 对某人严厉     

如:Mother is strict with her son. 妈妈对她的儿子很严厉。

9. the other day  前几天

10. agree 同意   反义词:disagree不同意  动词

agreement 同意   反义词:disagreement 不同意  名词

11. keep sb/ sth+ 形容词 使某人/某物保持……    

如:We should keep our city clean. 我们应该保持我们的城市干净。

12. both…and… + 动词复数形式(both and本身也是一个非常重要的考点)

如:Both Jim and Li Ming play  bastketball.

13. learn(sth.)from sb  向谁学习(什么)     

如:Jim learnt English from his English teacher. 吉姆向他的英语老师学习英语。

14. at least 最少  at most 最多

15. 花费: take ,cost, spend , pay

sth. take(sb.) time to do sth.  如:It took (me) 10 days to read the book.

sth. cost(sb.)…  如:The book cost(me)100 yuan.

sb. spend … on sth.  如:She spent 10 days on this book.

sb. spend …(in)doing sth.  如:She spent 10 days(in)reading this book.

sb. pay … for sth.  如:She paid 10 yuan for this book.

(大家注意这几个词的区分,take它的主语往往是it,spend和pay的主语是人,cost的主语是物,我们只要明白了这几点,做题就比较容易了)

16. have + 时间段+off  放假,休息   如:have 2 days off

17. get in the way of 碍事,妨碍

18. think about与think of的区别

① 当两者译为:认为、想起、记着时,两者可互用

I often think about/of that day. 我经常想起那天。

② think about 还有“考虑”之意,think of做为想到、想出时两者不能互用

At last, he thought of a good idea. 最后他想出了一个好主意。

We are thinking about going Qinzhou. 我们正在考虑去钦州。

19. care about sb. 关心某人      

如:Mother often care about her son.

20. also:也,用于句中  I am also a student. 我也是一个学生

either:也,用于否定句且用于句末  I am not a student, either. 我也不是一个学生。

too:也,用于肯定句且用于句末  I am a student, too. 我也是一个学生。

(要记住它们分别用在什么句子中,以及用在什么位置)


【重点语法】


语态


1. 两种语态:主动语态和被动语态

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者;被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。

Cats eat fish.(主动语态)猫吃鱼。

Fish is eaten by cats.(被动语态)鱼被猫吃。


2. 被动语态的构成

由“助动词be +及物动词的过去分词”构成

助动词be 有人称、数和时态的变化。


倒装句


由so+助动词(be/do/will/have)/情态动词+主语,意为:…也是一样。

She is a student. So am I. 她是一个学生,我也是。

She will go to school. So will he.  她将去学校,他也是。


Unit8 It must belong to Carla.


【重点短语】

1. be long to 属于

2. listen to classical music 听古典音乐

3. at school 上学;求学

4. go to the concert 去听音乐会

5. have any/some idea 知道

6. a math test on algebra  有关代数的数学考试

7. the final exam 期末考试

8. because of  因为

9. a present for his mother 送给她妈妈的礼物

10. run for exercise  跑步锻炼

       

【重点句型】

1. If you have any idea where might be please call me. 如果你知道它可能在哪,请打电话给我。

2. It’s crucial that I study for it because it counts 30% to the final exam. 关键是我必须学,因为它占期末考试的30%。

3. What do you think “anxious“ means? 你认为“anxious”是什么意思?

4. He could be running for exercise. 他可能是正在跑步锻炼身体。

5. He might be running to catch a bus. 他可能是正在跑着赶公共汽车。

6. Why do you think the man is running? 你觉得那个男的为什么跑?


【考点详解】

1. 情态动词must, may , might, could, may , can't表示推测含义,后面都接动词原形,都可以表示对现在情况的揣测和推断,但他们含义有所不同。

must 一定,肯定 (100%的可能性)

may, might, could 有可能,也许 (20%-80%的可能性)

can't 不可能,不会 (可能性几乎为零)

2. whose:谁的,是个疑问词,作定语,后面接名词

如:---Whose book is this? ---This is Lily's.

4.  当play 指弹奏西洋乐器时,常在乐器前用定冠词the

play the guitar;play the piano;play the violin

当play 指进行球类运动时,则不用定冠词

play football;play basketball;play baseball

5. if引导的条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时代替将来时。

If you don't hurry up, you'll be late. 如果你不快点,你将会迟到。

6. if you have any idea= if you know  如果你知道

7. on 关于(学术,科目)

9. because of:由于   

because:因为,它们的用法是:

because of + 名词/代词/名词性短语(这是一个重要的短语)

because + 从句

I do it because I like it. 我做这件事是因为我喜欢。

I had to move because of my job. 因为工作的原因我得搬家。

10. own v. - owner n.  

listen v. - listener n.  

learn v. - learner n.

11. catch a bus 赶公车

12.  neighbor 邻居,指人

neighborhood 邻居,指地区也可指附近地区的人

13. local 当地的 如:local teacher 当地的教师

16. anything strange  一些奇怪的东西

当形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,放在这些词的后面(重要,切记)

17. there be sb./sth. doing 有…...正在......

There is a cat eating fish.

18. escape from…  从哪里逃跑出来(常考短语)

He escaped from the burning building. 他从燃烧的建筑中逃出来。

19. an ocean of + 名词 极多的,用不尽的 如:an ocean of energy.

20. unhappy 不高兴的  反义词:happy 高兴的

22. dishonest 不诚实的  反义词:honest 诚实的

23. get on 上车   get off 下车(掌握住这两个短语的意思)

24. use up 用光,用完

They have used up all the money. 他们已经用完了所有的钱。

25. attempt to do 试图做某事(重要考点,大家记着attempt后面用的是不定式to do)

The boys attempted to leave for Beijing. 男孩子们试图想去北京。

26. wake 是个动词,意思是唤醒,常用的词组:wake up 意为醒来

Please wake me up at 8 o'clock. 请在8点钟叫醒我。

27.  look for 寻找,强调找的动作(重要)

find 找到,强调找的结果

I am looking for a pen. 我正在找一支笔。(指找的动作)

I found my pen just now. 我刚刚找到了我的笔。(指找的结果)

28.  hear 听,强调听的结果

listen 听,强调听的动作

Did you hear? 你听到了吗?(指听的结果)

I often listen to the music. 我经常听音乐。(指听的动作)

29. try one's best to do sth. 尽某人的最大努力去做某事(注意best后面跟的不定式to do是考试的重点)

He tried his best to run. 他尽他的最大努力去跑。


【重点语法】现在完成时态(点击左方蓝色链接即可查看具体内容)


Unit9 I like music that I can dance to.


【重点短语】

1. expect to do sth.  期望做某事

expect sb. to do sth  期望某人做某事

2. catch up with  追上,赶上

3. different kinds of music  各种不同的音乐

4. quiet and gentle songs  轻柔的歌曲

5. take…to…  带……到……

6. remind…of… 使某人想起或意识到……

7. her own songs 她自己的歌曲

8. be important to 对……重要

9. Yellow River 黄河

10. Hong Tao’s latest movie  洪涛最近的电影

11.  over the years  多年来

12. be sure to do sth.  务必/一定做某事

13. one of the best known Chinese photographers 世界上最有名的中国摄影家之一

14. on display  展览,展出

15. come and go 来来往往

16. can’t stand 不能忍受


【重点句型】

1. I love singers who write their own music. 我喜欢自己创作曲子的歌手。

2. We prefer music that has great lyrics. 我们更喜欢歌词很棒的音乐。

3. What do you dislike about this CD. 你不喜欢这张CD的什么?

4. What does it remind you of? 它使你想起了什么?

5. The music reminds me of Brazilian dance music. 这首曲子使我想起了巴西舞曲。

6. It does have a few good features, though.  然而,它的确也有一些好的方面。

7. She really has something for everyone. 每个人的确都能从她的作品中领悟到一些东西。

8. Whatever you do, don’t miss this exhibition. 无论怎样,你都不能错过这个展览会。

9. As the name suggests, the band has a lot of energy.  正如乐队名字所暗示的那样, 这支乐队很有活力。

10. Some people say they are boring, but others say they are great. 有些人说他们很无聊,但也有人说,他们是伟大的。

11. I f I were you, I’d eat nuts instead. 如果我是你,我会改吃坚果。


【考点详解】

1. prefer v. 更喜欢,宁愿

prefer sth. 更喜欢某事  I prefer English. 我更喜欢英语。

prefer to do. 宁愿做某事  I prefer to sit. 我宁愿坐着。

prefer sth to sth. 同…...相比更喜欢…... I prefer dogs to cats. 与猫相比我更喜欢狗。

prefer doing to doing. 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事  I prefer walking to sitting. 我宁愿走路也不愿坐着。

2. along with 伴随… , 同… 一道

I will go along with you. 我同你一道去。

3. dance to sth. 随着…...跳舞(用的介词是to,这一点要注意)

She likes dancing to the music. 她喜欢随着音乐而跳舞。

4. music n. 音乐

musician n. 音乐家

5. unfortunately adv.不幸运地       

fortunately adv.幸运地(如果你把这个词记住了,那考试的时候你就是幸运的~)

6. fun n. 有趣   funny adj. 有趣的,滑稽的

7. be sure to do 一定做某事,肯定做某事

It is sure to snow. 肯定要下雪

8. known adj. 有名的,著名的(记住意思)

9. on display 展览(常见短语)

10. energy n.活力  energetic adj.有活力的

11. most of…   ……的大多数

12. keep healthy 保持健康

13. get together 聚在一起

14. discuss v.讨论  discussion n.讨论

15. be bad for sth. 对…有坏处

16. take care of = look after 照顾

She often takes care of/looks after her son.

17. stay away from 远离……

Stay away from me. I have a cold. 请远离我,我得了感冒

18. to be honest 老实说

To be honest I really like flowers. 老实说我真的很喜欢花。

19. dislike 不喜欢   反义词:like 喜欢

20. fisherman 渔夫  它的复数形式是fishermen

21. photography n. 摄影;photograph n. 照片 相片;photographer n. 摄影师

22. be in agreement 意见一致,常与介词on/about连

They are in agreement on that question. 他们对那个问题意见一致。

23. even if  甚至

24. mainly adv. 主要地 首要地


Unit10 You're supposed to shake hands.


【重点短语】

1. be supposed to do 被期望/应该做......

2. shake hands 握手

3. for the first time  第一次

4. table manners  餐桌礼仪

5. drop by 偶然拜访,顺便拜访

6. after all 毕竟,终究

7. be on time 准时

8.(in) the wrong way 以错误的方式

9. be relaxed about 对……比较随意/放松

10. a bit 一点

    

【重点句型】

1. He should have told me about it. 他本应该把这件事告诉我。

2. Where I’m from, we’re pretty relaxed about time. 我所在的地方,对时间是相当宽松的。

3. We often just drop by our friends’homes. 我们时常去朋友家拜访。

 4. Often we just walk around the town center, seeing as many of our friends as we can. 我们经常走遍市中心,看尽可能多的朋友。

5. We usually make plans to see friends. 通常我们都是做好去看朋友的计划。

6. We’re the land of watches, after all.  毕竟,我们是表之乡。

7. It’s even better than I thought it would be. 事情比我想象的要好得多。

8. They go out of their way to make me feel at home. 他们花尽心血让我感觉不到拘束。

9.  Although I still make lots of mistakes, it doesn’t bother me like it used to. 尽管我经常出一些错,但它不像过去那样打扰我。

10. I thought that was pretty strange at first, but now I’m used to it. 开始,我想那是太奇怪了,但是现在我已经习惯了。

11. I have to say I find it difficult to remember everything, but I’m gradually getting used to things, and don’t find them so strange any more. 不得不承认,我发现记住一切东西是很困难的,但我渐渐习惯了,并且发现他们也不再那么奇怪了。


【考点详解】

1. be supposed to do  应该(注意它的翻译,另外supposed后面用的是不定式to do)

We are supposed to stop smoking. 我们应该停止吸烟。

3. You should have asked what you were supposed to wear. 你本应该问清楚怎么样穿才得体。

上句中的“should have asked”是“情态动词+现在完成时”表示过去本应该做某事,事实上没有做(这点要清楚)

She should have gone to Beijing. 她本应该去了北京。(没有去)

4. be relaxed about sth. 对某事随意、不严格

They are relaxed about the time. 他们对时间很随意。

5. pretty  adv. 相当,很    adj. 美丽的     

She is pretty friendly. 她相当友好。

She is a pretty girl. 她是一个美丽的女孩。

6. plan to do. 打算做某事(常见用法)

She has planed to go to Beijing.

7. drop by 访问,看望,拜访,串门

We just dropped by our friends' homes.我们刚刚去朋友家串门。

8. on time 按时(in time的意思是及时,这两个短语经常出现在辨析题中)

9. after all 毕竟 终究(五星级重点词汇,记住它的意思)

You see I was right after all. 你看,毕竟还是我对了。

10. invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事(重要内容,注意后面用的是不定式to do)

Lily invited me to have dinner. 莉莉请我吃晚饭。

11. without 没有(这个词经常考,题目会单纯考它的意思,所以大家应该记住它的意思)

12. around the world = all over the world 全世界

13. pick up 捡起,挑选(捡起的意思考的较多)

He picked up his hat. 他捡起他的帽子。

14. start doing = start to do 开始做某事(start的用法属于常考内容,记住它的这两个用法)

He started reading= He started to read. 他开始阅读。

15. point at 指向(指近处的事物)

point to 指向(指远处的事物)

16. stick v. 剌,截   n. 棒,棍

17. go out of one's way to do 特意/专门做某事

He went out of his way to make me happy. 他特意使我高兴。

18. make mistakes 犯错误(复数)      

make a mistake 犯错误(一个)

19. be different from 与……不同

Chinese food is different from theirs. 中国菜与他们的不同。

20.  get/be used to sth. 习惯于……(这些用法大家务必记住,虽然这些用法很多,而且比较容易搞混淆,但是它们确实经常考,大家可以结合例子记忆)

get/be used to doing 习惯于……

be used to do  被用来做……

be used for doing 被用来做...…

used to do 过去常常做…...

I wash clothes everyday. I'm used to it. 我每天都洗衣服。我习惯了。

I am used to washing clothes. 我习惯于洗衣服了。

The knives are used to cut things. 小刀被用来切东西。

The knives are used for cutting things. 小刀被用来切东西。

She used to watch TV after school. 她过去放学后常常看电视。

21. I find it difficult to remember everything. 我发现要记住每一样事是困难的。

find/think + it +形容词 + to do sth.

22. cut up 切开,切碎

Let's cut up the watermelon.  让我们切开这个西瓜吧。

23. make a toast 敬酒

24. crowd  v.挤满  其形容词和过去式及过去分词都是:crowded(crowded考的相对多些)

25. set  n. 一套  v. 设置

26. can't stop doing 忍不住做某 I can't stop laughing. 我忍不住笑

27. make faces 做鬼脸

28. face to face 面对面地

29. learn…by oneself 自学......(重要用法)

I learn English by my self. 我自学英语。


Unit11 Sad movies make me cry.


【重点短语】

1. make me sleepy 使我困倦

2. drive sb. crazy 使……发疯

3. the more…, the more  越……越……

4. yes and no 好坏参半

5. be friends with sb. 是某人的朋友

6. feel left out 感觉被忽视

7. sleep badly 睡眠很差

8. don’t feel like eating 不想吃东西

9. for no reason 毫无理由

10. neither…nor…  既不……也不……

11. let…down 使…失望

12. take one’s position 替代我的职位

13. to start with  起初

14. get the exam result back  取考试成绩单

15. find out 发现

16. a shirt of a happy person  一件快乐人的衬衫


【重点句型】

1.  —I’d rather go to Blue Ocean because I like to listen to quiet music while I’m eating. 更愿意到蓝海洋餐厅,因为我喜欢在吃饭时听轻音乐。

—But that music make me sleepy. 但那种音乐使我困倦。

2. Waiting for Amy drove Tina crazy. 等候艾米使蒂娜发狂。

3. The movie was so sad that it made Tina and Amy cry.  这部电影是如此悲伤以致使蒂娜和艾米都哭了。

4. Sad movies don’t make John cry. They just make him want to leave quickly. 悲伤的电影没有让约翰哭他们只能使他想尽快离开。

5. Loud music makes me nervous. 吵闹的音乐使我紧张。

6. Soft and quiet music makes me relax. 轻柔的音乐使我放松。

7. Money and fame don’t always make people happy. 金钱和名誉并不总能使人幸福。

8. She said that the sad movie made her cry. 她说悲伤的电影使她哭泣。


【考点详解】

1. But that music makes me sleepy. 但是那种音乐使我困倦。

动词make的使役用法,make sb后分别接了形容词和不定式短语。make的这种用法常见于以下结构:

make+名词(代词)+省略to的动词不定式

My parents often make me do some other homework. 我父母常让我做些其他的作业。

这一结构中的不定式短语在主动结构中是宾语补足语,必须省去to,变为被动结构时,不定式短语作主语补足语,这时必须带to。

如:She was made to work for the night shift. 她不得不上夜班。

② make+名词/代词+-ed分词短语。

如:What made them so frightened? 什么使他们这样害怕?

③ make+名词/代词+介词短语或名词短语。

如:She made him her assistant. 她委派他做自己的助手。

④ make+名词(代词)+形容词或形容词短语。

如:—The good news made us happy. 这条好消息使我们很高兴。

—Yes,I suppose so. 我想他会回来。

⑤ make +形式宾语it +形容词或名词(作宾语补足语)+从句(作真正的宾语)

如:They want to make it clear to the public that they do an important and necessary job.

他们要向公众表明, 他们所做的工作不但重要, 而且是必不可少的。

2. wealth n. 财富

 ① 表示“财富”“金钱”,是不可数名词。如:

They had little desire for wealth. 他们对财富无大欲望。

② 表示“大量”“众多”“丰富”等,可连用不定冠词,尤其用于a wealth of结构(其后可接可数名词或不可数名词)。如:

He sent me a book with a wealth of illustrations. 他送给我一本有大量插图的书。

Hidden underground is a wealth of gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc.

地下埋藏了大量的金、银、铜、铅和锌。

3. He slept badly and didn’t feel like eating.他睡眠很差并且不想吃东西。

feel like的用法:

① 表示“感觉像(是)……”

My legs feel like cotton wool. 我感觉两条腿像棉花一样。

② 表示“想要做……”,后接动名词doing形式。

I don’t feel like cooking. Let’s eat out.  我不想做饭,我们出去吃吧。


Unit12 Life is full of the unexpected.


【重点短语】

1. take a shower 淋浴

2. leave my backpack at home 把背包忘在家里

3. get back to school  返回学校

4. start teaching  开始教学

5. go off  响铃

6. rush out the door 冲出房门

7. give sb a lift  捎某人一程

8. miss both events  错过两个事件

9. be about to do sth  正要做某事

10. stare in disbelief at  难以置信地盯着

11. raise above the burning building 从正在燃烧的楼上升起

12. jump out of bed 跳下床

13. collect the math homework 收数学作业

14. show up 赶到,出现

    

【重点句型】

1. By the time I got up, my brother had already gotten in the shower. 当我起床时,我哥哥已经进了浴室了。

2. By the time I got outside, the bus had already gone. 当我出来时,公汽已经走了。

3. When I got to school, I realized I had left my backpack at home. 当我到达学校时,我才意识到我把背包忘在家里了。

4. By the time I walked into class, the teacher had started teaching already. 当我走进教室时,老师已经开始讲课了。

 5. By the time I arrived at the party, everyone else had already showed up. 当我到达晚会时, 其他的每个人都已经到了。

6. When he put the noodles into the bowl, he realized he had forgotten to add the green beans. 当他把面条放进碗里时,他意识到他忘了添加绿豆荚了。

7. Before she got a chance to say goodbye, he had gone into the building. 在她得到一个向他告别的机会之前,他已经进入楼房了。


【考点详解】

1. By the time I got outside, the bus had already left. 当我出来的时候,公共汽车已经走了。

by the time作连词引导时间状语从句,当从句用一般过去时,主句用过去完成时;当从句用一般现在时,主句用一般将来时或将来完成时。

如:By the time he was ten, Tom had built a chemistry lab himself. 等到了十岁的时候,汤姆自己建了一个化学实验室。

I’ll be in bed by the time you get home. 你到家时,我已经上床睡觉了。

2. When she got to school, she realized she had left her backpack at home. 当她到学校时,她意识到她把背包忘在家里了。

表示“把某物忘在某处”要用词组leave sth in/on/at...

如: I've left my umbrella at home. 我把伞忘在家里了。

I left my book on the desk. 我把书忘在桌子上。

forget意为“遗忘某物”,指忘记一件具体的东西,但不能有具体的地点。

如:I forgot my umbrella yesterday. 我昨天忘了带伞。

Don't forget the cases.  别忘了带箱子。

3. Last Friday night, my friend invited me to his birthday party.

上周五晚上,我朋友邀请我参加他的生日晚会。

invite sb. to a place(或一活动、聚会) 意为“邀请某人到某一地方或参加某一活动”;而invite sb to do sth. 意为“邀请某人做某事”。

如: I think we have many friends now, and we must invite them to our place. 我想我们现在有很多朋友了, 我们也应该邀请他们到我们家做客。

Kitty’s teacher Mr Wu invited me to join their school trip to the World Park. 基蒂的老师吴老师邀请我参加了去世界公园的学校郊游活动。

4. Wells made it sound so real that hundreds of people believed the story and fear spread across the whole country.

威尔斯讲述这个新闻起来如此的真实,以致成百上千的人都相信了这个故事,进而引发了全国性的恐慌。

so…that...在此引导结果状语从句,so后面应加一个形容词或副词,意为“如此……以至于……”。

如:This book is so interesting that everyone in our class wants to read it. 这本书是如此的有趣以至于全班同学都想看看。(so+形容词)

He ran so fast that I couldn't catch up with him. 他跑得那么快,以至于我跟不上他。(so+副词)


【重点语法】


比较一般过去时和现在完成时的异同


1. 共同点:动作都是在过去完成。


I saw the film yesterday evening.

I have seen the film before.

(看电影这件事都是在过去完成的。)


2. 区别:


①现在完成时强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响和结果,而一般过去时与现在没有联系,只是说明某个动作发生的时间是在过去。


②一般过去时通常与具体明确的过去时间状语连用。如yesterday, last week , two years ago,just now,in 2002 等;而现在完成时则常与 just ,already ,ever ,never 等模糊的过去时间状语和 these days ,this week ,since..., for... 等表示一段时间的状语连用。


Unit13 We're trying to save the earth!


【重点短语】

1. at the bottom of the river 在河床底部     

2. be full of the rubbish 充满了垃圾

3. throw litter into the river 把垃圾扔入河中

4. play a part in cleaning it up 尽一份力把它清理干净

5. land pollution  土地污染

6. fill the air with black smoke  使空气中充满了黑烟

7. cut down air pollution  减少空气污染

8. make a difference  产生影响

17. take action  采取行动

18. turn off  关掉

19. pay for 付费

20. add up 累加

21. use public transportation 使用公共交通

22. recycle books and paper  回收书和废纸

23. use paper napkins  使用纸巾

24. turn off the shower 关掉喷头

25. ride in cars 开车出行

     

【重点句型】

1. Even the bottom of the river was full of rubbish.  甚至河底都充满垃圾。

2. Everyone in town should play a part in cleaning it up. 城里的每个人都应当尽一份力把它清理干净。

3. The air is badly polluted because there are too many cars on the road these days. 空气被严重污染因为如今路上的汽车太多了。

4. To cut down air pollution, we should take the bus or subway instead of driving. 为了减少空气污染,我们应当乘坐公汽或地铁而不是开车。

5. I used to be able to see stars in the sky. 我过去能在天空中看到星星。

6. The air has become really polluted around here. I’m getting very worried. 这儿的空气真的已经被污染了,我非常担心。

7. No scientific studies have shown that shark fins are good for health. 没有科学研究说明鱼鳍对人们的健康有好处。


【考点详解】

1. pay的基本用法

(1) pay (sb.) money for sth. 付钱(给某人)买……

例:I have to pay them 20 pounds for this room each month. 我每个月要付20英磅的房租。

(2)pay for sth. 付……的钱。

例:I have to pay for the book lost. 我不得不赔丢失的书款。

(3)pay for sb. 替某人付钱。

例:Don't worry! I'll pay for you. 别担心,我会给你付钱的。

(4)pay sb. 付钱给某人。

例: They pay us every month. 他们每月给我们报酬。

(5)pay money back 还钱。

例:May I borrow 12 yuan from you? I'll pay it back next week. 你能借给我12块钱吗?下周还你。

(6)pay off one's money 还清钱。

2. This method is not only cruel, but also harmful to the environment. 这种方法不仅残酷,而且对环境有害。

(1)not only…but also…意为“不仅……而且……”用于连接两个表示并列关系的成分,着重强调后者,其中的also有时可以省略。

如:She not only plays well, but also writes music. 她不仅很会演奏,而且还会作曲。

He not only writes his own plays, he also acts in them. 他不仅是自编剧本, 还饰演其中的角色。

He works not only on weekdays but on Sundays as well. 他不仅平时工作,星期日也工作。

(2)若连接两个成分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致。

如:Not only you but also he has to leave. 不只是你,他也得离开。

 (3)若连接两个句子,not only后面的句子要用倒装。

如:Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily. 他不仅说得更正确,而且讲得更不费劲了。


【重点语法】

动词不定式做目的状语时的用法


To cut down air pollution, we should take the bus or subway instead of driving. 为了减少空气污染,我们应当乘坐公汽或地铁而不是开车。

本句中To cut down air pollution是动词不定式作目的状语。


1. 不定式和不定式短语作目的状语


不定式和不定式短语作目的状语,主要用来修饰动词,表示某一动作或状态的目的。为了使目的意义更加清楚或表示强调意义时,还可以在前面加 in order to 或 so as to。

例如:I've written it down in order not to forget.

He shouted and waved so as to be noticed.


在句子中作谓语动词的状语的不定式或不定式短语,表示的是主语的目的,因此,其逻辑主语通常是句子的主语。比较:

To draw maps properly, you need a special pen.(正)

To draw maps properly, a special pen is needed.(误)


由 in order to 引导的目的状语,既可以置于句尾,也可以置于句首,而由 so as to 引导的目的状语,只能置于句尾,而不能置于句首。比较:

They started early in order to get there in time.(正)

In order to get there in time, they started early.(正)

They started early so as to get there in time.(正)

So as to get there in time, they started early.(误)


2. 不定式的复合结构作目的状语

当不定式或不定式短语有自己的执行者时,要用不定式的复合结构(即在不定式或不定式短语之前加 for + 名词或宾格代词)作状语。例如:

He opened the door for the children to come in.

She fetched several bottles which she placed on the counter for Harry to inspect.


3. 目的状语从句与不定式的转换

英语中的目的状语从句,还可以变为不定式或不定式短语作状语,从而使句子在结构上得以简化。可分为两种情况:


(1)当目的状语从句中的主语与主句中的主语相同时,可以直接简化为不定式或不定式短语作状语。例如:

We'll start early in order that/so that we may arrive in time.

We'll start early in order to/so as to arrive in time.


(2)当目的状语从句中的主语与主句中的主语不相同时,要用动词不定式的复合结构作状语。例如:

I came early in order that you might read my report before the meeting.

I came early (in order) for you to read my report before the meeting.


Unit14 I remember meeting all of you in Grade 7.


【重点短语】

1. win a prize 获奖

2. do a school survey 做一个学校调查

3. meet the standard of a strict teacher 满足一位要求严格的老师的要求

4. meet this group of friends 遇到这群朋友

5. score two goals in a row 连续踢进两个球

6. learn to play the keyboard 学会弹钢琴

7. be patient with sb 对……有耐心

8. work out the answer yourself 自己找出答案

9. guide sb to do sth 指导某人做某事

10. put in more effort 更加努力

11. look back at  回首

12. pride of overcoming fear 克服恐惧感的自豪

13. make a great big mess 弄得一团糟

14. keep my cool 保持我的清高

15. try to be on time for morning reading 尽力赶上早读

16. look forward to doing sth 期望做某事

17. join the school swim team 加入学校游泳队

18. get a business degree  取得一个商业学位

      

【重点句型】

1. ---What happened in Grade7 that was special? 在七年级时发什么了什么特别的事?

---Our team won the school basketball competition. 我们队赢了学校的蓝球比赛。

3. ---How have you changed since you started junior high school? 你上中学后有什么变化?

---I've become much better at speaking English.  我在说英语上比以前更好。

3. How do you think things will be different in senior high school? 你认为在高中会有什么不同?

---I think that I'll have to study much harder for exams. 我想我将更加为考试努力学习。

4. ---What are your plans for next year? 你明年的计划是什么?

---I'm going to join the school volleyball team. 我将加入学校排球队。

5. ---What do you remember about Grade 8. 关于八年级你记得什么?

---I remember being a volunteer. 我记得当一名志愿者。

6. ---What do you use to do that you don't do now? 你以前做而现在不做的事是什么?

---I used to take dance lessons, but I don't anymore. 我以前上舞蹈课,但现在不上了。

7. ---What are you looking forward to? 你期望做什么?

---I'm looking forward to going to senior high school. 我期望上高中。


【考点详解】

1. She helped you to work out the answers yourself no matter how difficult they were. 她帮助你自己算出答案,无论它们有多难。

no matter常与疑问代词或疑问副词一起构成连词词组引导让步状语从句,意为“不管……,无论……”,在运用时应注意以下几点:

(1)注意从句的时态

由no matter what/who/where/when引导的从句往往用一般现在时或一般过去时。如:No matter who you are, you must obey the rules. 无论你是谁,都应该遵守规则。

 (2)注意被修饰的名词、形容词以及副词的位置

no matter what/whose/which修饰名词时,该名词必须紧跟其后;no matter how修饰形容词或副词时,该形容词或副词也必须紧跟其后。

如:No matter how hard he works, he find it difficult to make ends meet. 无论他多么努力工作,却总是入不敷出。

(3)注意“no matter+疑问词”结构与“疑问词+ever”在用法上的区别:

①“no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,这时可以和“疑问词+ever”互换。

如:No matter where he may be (=Wherever he may be), he will be happy. 他无论在什么地方都快乐。

② 而“疑问词+ever”还可以引导名词性从句。    

如:Give this book to whoever likes it. 谁喜欢这本书就给谁吧。(这里不能用no matter who)

③ whoever既可引导名词性从句,又有在从句中作主语、宾语、表语等;whomever也可引导名词性从句,但只能在从句中作宾语。

如:You may invite whomever you like.

2.  caring adj. 体贴人的

如:I will miss the school trees and flowers and our kind and caring teachers. 我会怀念学校的树木花草以及我们善良,体贴的老师。

3. 用于 go ahead, 注意以下用法:

(1)表示同意或允许,意为“说吧”、“做吧”

A:May I start? 我可以开始了吗?

B:Yes, go ahead. 好,开始吧。

(2)表示继续做某事,意为“继续…吧”

Go ahead. We are all listening. 继续讲吧,我们都在听呢!

4. As you set out on your new journey, you shouldn't forget where you came from. 当你出发踏上你的新的旅程时,不要望了你来自哪里。

set out 意为“出发;开始;陈述”。

例句:The professor sets out his ideas clearly in his article. 在这篇文章中教授清楚地表明了自己的想法。

set的用法:

(1)set about sth./doing sth. 着手做某事

如: We set about our task at once with great enthusiasm. 我们以极大的热情立即着手这项任务。

(2)set aside 放在一边,搁置;存蓄,留下

如: My parents set aside a bit of money every month. 我的父母每个月都存点钱。

(3)set off 动身,出发; 燃放(鞭炮等),使……爆炸或发出响声

如: After we had finished eating, he proposed to set off immediately. 我们吃完饭后,他建议立即动身。

(4)set out 动身,出发; set out to do sth. 打算或着手做某事。

如: They set out as the sun was rising. 太阳升起时,他们就出发了。

(5)set up 竖起来,支起来;建立,成立。

如: The school has set up a special class to help slow students.

学校成立了一个特殊的班级,帮助那些后进生。


▍声明:内容转自网络,如有侵权请联系删除


微信公众号后台回复关键字:知识点语法、课文音频写作素材可获取相应干货!


推荐阅读:

免费领取!八年级英语(人教版)上下册知识点汇总,预习复习两不误!
太猖狂!女教师被公务员家长暴打住院,吓哭全班学生
初中三年全部语法内容大汇总,记熟吃透,考试不用愁!
powered by 励志天下 © 2017 WwW.lizhi123.net