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分词短语

编辑:励志天下 www.lizhi123.net类别:短语精选

1) 作定语作定语用的分词如果是单词,一般放在它所修饰的名词之前。如: I’m reading a very interesting book.我在读一本很有趣的书。 He likes to drink cold boiled water. 他喜欢喝凉开水。

分词短语作定语用时,一般皆放在它所修饰的名词的后面。它的功用相当于定语从句。如: China is a developing socialist country belonging to the Third world.中国是一个发展中的社会主义国家,属于第三世界。 (= which belongs to the Third World)

The man sitting it the corner is my brother.坐在角落里的那个人是我的兄弟。(= who is sitting in the comer)

Most of the people invited to the party did not come.被邀请参加晚会的人多数没有来。(= who were invited to the party.) 2)作表语

The opera is very moving and instructive.这个歌剧很动人,且有教育意义。 The cups are broken.这些杯子是破的。 He is married.他已经结婚了。

[注] 分词作表语用时,相当于形容词,不可与进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。它们的形式相似,但可以从意义上加以辨别。试比较:

Lei Feng’s spirit is inspiring the people all over the country. 雷锋的精神鼓舞着全国人民。(现在进行时)

His report is inspiring. 他的报告令人鼓舞。(现在分词作表语)

The road was completed by the PLA men.这条路是解放军战士修成的。(被动语态) The road is completed.这条路已经筑成。(过去分词作表语)

3)作状语分词在意义上也可用作状语,表示时间、原因、方式和伴随情况等。 a)表示时间(在意义上往往相当于表示时间的状语从句)。如:

Looking out of the window,I saw groups of children passing by the house.我从窗口望出去,看见成群的孩子们从房子前面走过。(= When I locked out of the window) Heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。(= When it is healed)

Opening the drawer he took out a dictionary.他打开抽屉,拿出一本词典。(= He opened the drawer and took...这两个动作是一个接着一个)

[注]如果要强调分词短语与谓语动词所表示的时间关系,分词短语之前可用when或while等连词。如:

While working in the factory (= While I was working in the factory),I learnt a lot from the workers.我在工厂工作期间,从工人那里学到了很多东西。 When heated,the metal expands.这种金属加热后即膨胀。 b)表示原因(在意义上相当于表示原因的状语从句)。如:

Feeling tired, I telephoned and said I couldn’t come to a hospital of Chinese medicine.我感到累,打电话说我不能去。(= Since I felt tired)

Thinking that Chinese medicine might help,he went to a hospital of Chinese medicine.他想中医也许有效,于是到一家中医医院去治病。(= As he thought that...)

Inspired by the excellent situation they worked even harder.在太好形势的鼓舞下,他们更加努力工作。(= Since they are inspired by...)

c)表示方式、伴随情况及结果(这种用法没有相当的状语从句可以代替)。如: He came running back to tell us the news.他跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。(方式) She stood there waiting for the bus.她站在那儿等公共汽车。(伴随情况或方式)

The child fell,striking head against the door and cutting it.小孩摔了一跤,头在门上碰破了。(结果)

He went out slamming the door.他走出去砰地一声把门关上。(伴随情况) The lichens came borne by storms.这些地衣是由暴风雨带来的。(方式)

分词的否定结构

现在分词的否定式由not后加现在分词构成。如:

Not knowing what to do,she went to the teacher for help.她不知道该怎么办,就去请老师帮助。 I left at noon,not staying for lunch.我是中午走的,没有留下来吃午饭。 过去分词表否定时,常借助un-等前缀表示。如: The boy was left uncared for.那孩子无人照管。

含有分词的复合宾语

分词可作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。可有这种复合宾语的动词有see,watch,hear,set,keep,find,have,get等等。如:

We saw them walking across the road.我们看见他们穿过那条马路。

We heard the children singing “I Love Beijing’s Tian An Men”我们听见孩子们唱《我爱北京天安门》。

I found my hometown almost completely rebuilt.我发现故乡几乎全部改建过了。

在have或get后面的复合宾语中,宾语补足语多是过去分词,而它所表示的动作又往往由别人所完成。如:

We must get the television set repaired.我们必须把电视机修好。(请别人修) I had my watch mended in town.我在城里修的表。(叫别人修的)

If we have shortcomings,we are not afraid to have them pointed out and criticized.我们如果有缺点,就不怕别人批评指出。(请别人指出)

但have的复合宾语中的过去分词的动作有时不一定由别人来完成,而是表自己的经验。如: He had his arm broken.他把手臂折断了。(不是别人给弄折的,而是自己弄折的)

[注一]上述句子结构变为被动语态时,除主语和宾语互换位置外,分词不动。如上面的第一、二例句即可变为:They were seen walking across the road.

The children were heard singing“I Love Beijing Tian An Men”。

[注二]现在分词在复合宾语中和动词不定式在复合宾语中的意义稍有不同。后者指事情的全过程,目的在于仅仅说明发生了这件事;前者指正在继续的动作的一部分,目的在于将该动作当时进行的情景呈现于读者之前,其含义相当于进行时态。如:

I saw him go upstairs.我看见他上楼去了。(看见他上楼整个过程,只说明他上楼这件事) I saw him going upstairs.我看见他走上楼的。(只看见他上楼这个动作的一部分,说明他上楼的情景)

I was working in the room all morning· I heard somebody All knock at the next door.我整个上午在房间工作,听见有人敲隔壁房间的门。(听见敲门整个过程)( 励志天下 www.lizhi123.net )

When I went back to the room,I heard her practicing singing in the next room.我回房间时听见她在隔壁房间练歌。(只听见一部分,回房间前她已开始唱了)

(www.lizhi123.net)

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